The blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of all blood vessels of the body. It therefore depends on the force exerted by the heart in each contraction to move the blood into circulation and the resistance of the blood vessels to the passage of blood.
The high pressure or hypertension is when
the pressure is higher than 130/80 mmHg, according to the latest guidelines published by the American Heart Association.
In most countries, cardiovascular diseases and arterial hypertension, among them, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the population. Hence the importance of being fully informed about the subject and regularly checking your blood pressure, in addition to knowing the risk factors to take preventive measures.
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure or hypertension?
The high blood pressure, or hypertension, is known as the "silent murderer" because, in most cases it occurs without any symptoms to warn his presence. It can even manifest for the first time, many years after the onset of the disease, beginning with some serious complication.
The routine check-up is the only safe measure we have to detect hypertension early.
However, a group of people may experience some symptoms of high blood pressure, among them we have:
1. Headache or neck pain (back of the neck): it is one of the most frequent symptoms expressed by patients who have symptoms.
2. Nausea, rarely with vomiting.
3. Drowsiness or confusion
4. Bleeding from the nose or Epistaxis.
5. Ringing in the ears or tinnitus.
6. Small spots of blood in the eyes.
7. Double or blurred vision.
8. Feeling of flushing or suffocation in the face and ears.
9. Chest pain.
10. Feeling of irregular heartbeat.
12. General weakness or tiredness
Treatment of high blood pressure
As part of the treatment, preventive measures are also very important to avoid the complications that high blood pressure can bring.
Given the high incidence of this disease and the scarce presentation of high blood pressure symptoms, it is very important to identify and take into account the measures that prevent the appearance of arterial hypertension.
· Balanced diet: low in fat.
· Reduce your salt intake.
· Get regular exercise.
· Give up smoking.
· Cut down on caffeinated drinks.
· Limit the amount of alcohol.
· Maintain a healthy weight or lose weight if you are obese or overweight.
· Decrease abdominal fat.
· Reduce stress.
· Maintain a good night's sleep.
· Avoid prolonged intake of allergies, nasal decongestants, flu and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Medical treatment for high blood pressure
Once the comprehensive medical check-up has been carried out, which allows evaluating the presence of arterial hypertension and in what stage or level it is, your doctor will indicate a treatment based on tablets or capsules to lower high pressure.
It must be clear that these treatments should not be suspended, in most cases a medical control must be maintained for life, which ensures the maintenance of normal values of blood pressure figures and thus reduce the risks of cardiovascular complications to future.
The dose or type of antihypertensive medication may be changed in due course, but always under medical supervision.
Proper control supposes the regular taking of medication, since the symptoms do not indicate the level of blood pressure.
There is a wide range of drugs for lowering high blood pressure or antihypertensives that are designed for use in different cases, so self-medication is not recommended under any circumstances. There are also side effects to watch out for and warn in all cases.
Here we mention the most important antihypertensive groups:
Diuretics (thiazides, chlorthalidone, indapamide, furosemide),
· Action causes increased urine volume and frequent urination.
· For the most part, you have to take care of potassium levels in the blood.
Beta-blockers: bisoprolol, acetabulol, atenolol, among others.
· It decreases the heart rate and the force of the heart to pump blood.
· They do not work well in black patients.
Calcium channel blockers: nifedipine, amlodipine, diltiazem, verapamil.
· Better effect on black race.
· Some can cause edema or swelling in the legs and ankles.
Central action, such as clonidine
· Action is at the brain level, where signals are controlled to lower blood pressure.
Alpha blockers like prazosin.
· Very old of little use at the moment.
Alpha-beta blockers, such as carvedilol and labetalol:
· They decrease heart rate.
· They relax the muscle of the arteries.
Vasodilators such as minoxidil:
· Relax the muscle of the arteries.
· They have a discreet effect and short duration.
Angiotensin inhibitors, such as captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, among others:
· They help relax the arteries.
· They protect the kidney.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers, such as losartan, candesartan
· They are very effective.
· Easy to take, generally a daily dose.
· Few side effects.
Aldosterone agonists such as spironolactone and eplerenone
· They have a diuretic effect.
· Potassium is not lost, like other diuretics.
In the same way, your doctor can choose some combinations that he considers necessary.
As you can see, there are general measures that are crucial to avoid high blood pressure or to control it if you already have the disease. In turn, there is a range of antihypertensive drugs that have multiple mechanisms of action, interactions with other drugs, and side effects. It is a very complex issue and therefore you should leave it in the hands of a specialist.
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